Quran School

The letter Hamzah (ء)

بِسۡمِ ٱلرَّحۡمَٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

There are two types of hamzah that appear in the Qur’an. Both are read and treated differently.

Sign in Qur’an is ءMay appear anywhere within a word.It is always pronouncedSign in the Qur’an is ٱAppears only at the beginningof a word.Pronounced only if there is no letter before it.
Hamza tul Wasl
  • It occurs only at the beginning of the word.
  • It occurs without any harakah (vowel) on it.
  • It is written as ٱ
  • It can be pronounced or skipped
PronouncedSkipped
If the reader starts reading from the word starting with hamza tul wasl, then it should be pronounced.If the reader connects the word which begins with hamza tul wasl with the letter preceding it, this letter is directly connected to the letter following hamza tul wasl.

Hamza tul wasl will be assigned with a dammah, if the 3rd letter of the verb carries a dammah.

3rd Letter
Dammah
Hamza tul Wasl
Dammah
Extract from Verse
ٱدْعُوا۟ رَبَّكُمْ
Surah : Verse (7:55)
3rd Letter
Dammah
Hamza tul Wasl
Dammah
Extract from Verse
ٱقْتُلُوا۟ يُوسُفَ
Surah : Verse (12:9)
  • Exceptional cases. The following words are the only verbs in the Qur’an where the 3rd letter carries a dammah but a kasrah is assigned to the hamza tul wasl
    (if he starts reading with it) :
ٱﻣﻀﻮا
ٱﻣﺸﻮا
ٱﺋْﺘُﻮا
ٱﻗﻀﻮا

Hamza tul wasl will be assigned with a kasrah, if the 3rd letter of the verb carries a fathah or kasrah.

3rd Letter
fathah
Hamza tul Wasl
Kasrah
Extract from Verse
ٱشْتَرَوْا۟ بِـَٔايَـٰتِ ٱللَّهِ
Surah : Verse (9:9)
3rd Letter
Kasrah
Hamza tul Wasl
Kasrah
Extract from Verse
ٱهْدِنَا ٱلصِّرَٰطَ ٱلْمُسْتَقِيمَ
Surah : Verse (1:6)

Click here to view a printable chart depicting the rules on pronouncing Hamza tul Wasl.

 Click ‘here‘ to view practice exercises for the rules of Hamza tul Wasl.

Hamza tul Qat’a

The letter Hamzah appears in many different forms in the Arabic language, but pronounced the same.

E.gإأئٶء

Note that the Alif and Hamzah are 2 different letters. The letter Alif in the Arabic language is always free from any type of harakah. If an Alif seems to have a harakah, then in actual fact it is a Hamzah.

Points relating to the letter Hamzah
  1. When pronouncing a Hamzah that carries a sukoon , care should be taken that it is pronounced correctly. Failing to do so may change it into a Waw , Ya or an Alif
E.g(104:8)مُّؤْصَدَةٌۙ may sound asمُّؤْصَدَةٌ
E.g(2:58)شِئْتُمْmay sound asشِئْتُمْ
E.g(21:61قَالُوا۟may sound asقَالُوا۟

2. When there appear 2 Hamzahs together, ensure both are pronounced distinctively.

E.g(79:27)ءَأَنتُمْ
E.g(21:62)ءَأَنتَ

3. Where the letters Hamzah and Aeyn appear together, ensure that both are differentiated clearly.

E.g(114:1)اعوذ
E.g(99:6)أَعْمَـٰلَهُمْ

Click ‘here‘ to view practice exercises for the rules of Hamza tul Qat’a.

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