Quran School

Tajweed Letters

Introduction

The Arabic Alphabet

بِسۡمِ ٱلرَّحۡمَٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

The table shows the letters of the alphabet in their possible states, depending on whether they are isolated or together with other letters in a word. If it is in a word, its form is affected by its position within the word, whether initial, middle or final. This causes a letter to have 4 possible forms, 1 when alone, and 3 when in a word: initial, middle and final.

ISOLATED
أ
FinalMiddleInitial
ـأـأأ
ISOLATED
ب
FinalMiddleInitial
ـبـبـ
ISOLATED
ت
FinalMiddleInitial
ـتـتـ
ISOLATED
ث
FinalMiddleInitial
ـث ـثـ
ISOLATED
ج
FinalMiddleInitial
ـج ـجـ جـ
ISOLATED
 ح
FinalMiddleInitial
ـحـحـحـ
ISOLATED
خ
FinalMiddleInitial
ـخـخـخـ
ISOLATED
د
FinalMiddleInitial
ـدـدد
ISOLATED
ذ
FinalMiddleInitial
ـذ ـذذ
ISOLATED
 ر
FinalMiddleInitial
ـر ـر ر
ISOLATED
ز
FinalMiddleInitial
ـزـزز
ISOLATED
س
FinalMiddleInitial
ـسـسـسـ
ISOLATED
ش
FinalMiddleInitial
ـش ـشـشـ
ISOLATED
ص
FinalMiddleInitial
ـصـصـ صـ
ISOLATED
 ض
FinalMiddleInitial
ـضـضـ ضـ
ISOLATED
طـ
FinalMiddleInitial
ـطـﻄـطـ
ISOLATED
ظ
FinalMiddleInitial
ـظ ـظـظـ
ISOLATED
ع
FinalMiddleInitial
ـع ـعـعـ
ISOLATED
غ
FinalMiddleInitial
ـغـغـغ
ISOLATED
ف
FinalMiddleInitial
ـفـفـفـ
ISOLATED
ق
FinalMiddleInitial
ـق ـقـقـ
ISOLATED
ك
FinalMiddleInitial
ـكـكـكـ
ISOLATED
ل
FinalMiddleInitial
ـل ـلـلـ
ISOLATED
م
FinalMiddleInitial
ـم ـمـم
ISOLATED
ن
FinalMiddleInitial
ـنـنــن
ISOLATED
و
FinalMiddleInitial
 ـو ـوو
ISOLATED
ه
FinalMiddleInitial
ـه ـهـهـ
ISOLATED
ي
FinalMiddleInitial
ـيـيـيـ
NOTE :
There are 6 letters that do not allow any letter to join with them from the left. These letters are :
ذدأ
 و زر

Click here to view a printable chart about these letters.

Letters

The correct recitation of the Qur’an that is achieved by giving each letter its due (using the organs of speech) through:

  • The vowel movements – Harakaat
  • Prescribed point of exit (where the sound of each letter should come from) – Makhraj
  • The manner of articulation (the characteristics of the letters and recitation) – Sifa

There are 16 letters of the Arabic alphabet which can be likened to various letters of the English alphabet :

Arabic Letter
ب
Closest English Equivalent
B
Arabic Word Example
بَنَيْنَا
English word example
Bravo
Arabic Letter
ت
Closest English Equivalent
T
Arabic Word Example
تَرۡجُفُ
English word example
Tango
Arabic Letter
ج
Closest English Equivalent
J
Arabic Word Example
وَجَعَلْنَا
English word example
Juliet
Arabic Letter
د
Closest English Equivalent
D
Arabic Word Example
 دَحاها
English word example
Delta
Arabic Letter
ز
Closest English Equivalent
Z
Arabic Word Example
زَجْرَةٌۭ
English word example
Zulu
Arabic Letter
س
Closest English Equivalent
S
Arabic Word Example
سَيَعْلَمُونَ
English word example
Sierra
Arabic Letter
ش
Closest English Equivalent
Sh
Arabic Word Example
 شَآءَ
English word example
Shoe
Arabic Letter
ف
Closest English Equivalent
F
Arabic Word Example
 فِيهِ
English word example
Foxtrot
Arabic Letter
ك
Closest English Equivalent
K
Arabic Word Example
كَلَّا
English word example
Kilo
Arabic Letter
ل
Closest English Equivalent
L
Arabic Word Example
ٱلَّيۡلَ
English word example
Leema
Arabic Letter
م
Closest English Equivalent
M
Arabic Word Example
مُخۡتَلِفُونَ
English word example
Mike
Arabic Letter
ن
Closest English Equivalent
N
Arabic Word Example
نَوۡمَكُمۡ
English word example
November
Arabic Letter
ه
Closest English Equivalent
H
Arabic Word Example
 هُمۡ
English word example
Hotel
Arabic Letter
و
Closest English Equivalent
W
Arabic Word Example
وَ جَنَّـٰتٍۢ

English word example
Water
Arabic Letter
ء
Closest English Equivalent
A
Arabic Word Example
أَنزَلْنَا
English word example
Alpha
Arabic Letter
ي
Closest English Equivalent
Y
Arabic Word Example
يَوْمَ يُنفَخُ
English word example
Yankee
The following letters do not have an English equivalent. These are :
ر صض
عطظ
ث خ ذ
‌غق

Vowels (Harakaat)

In the English language we use letters for vowels, whereas in the Arabic language we use symbols, or a combination of symbols and letters. Also, the Arabic language has short and long vowels, whereas the English language has just the one type.
SHORT VOWELS (1 count)

Symbol
Name
fathah
Also Known As
Zabar
Sound
a
Example of Sound
cat
Example of Arabic letter
بَ
Symbol
Name
Kasrah
Also Known As
Zay
Sound
i / e
Example of Sound
me
Example of Arabic letter
بِ
Symbol
Name
Dammah
Also Known As
Paysh
Sound
u
Example of Sound
who
Example of Arabic letter
بُ

LONG VOWELS (2 counts)

Symbol/ Letter
اَ
Other
ىٰ
Sound
aa
Extract from Verse
مَلِكِ ٱلنَّاسِ
إِلَـٰهِ
وَٱلضُّحَىٰ
Symbol/ Letter
ﻯِ
Sound
ea/ee
Extract from Verse
ٱلَّذِى
Symbol/ Letter
وُ
Sound
oo
Extract from Verse
وَلَمْ يُولَدْ

MISCELLANEOUS

Symbol/ Letter
Name
Sukoon/ Saakin
Description
Indicates the absence of a vowel. Joins 2 letters together
وَلَمْ يَكُن لَّهُۥ
Symbol/ Letter
Name
Shaddah
Description
Indicates a doubled letter (joins 2 letters and also tightens the pronunciation to illustrate 2 of the same letter), to the point that you pause on it for a fraction of a second
Extract from Verse
وَمِن شَرِّ
SHADDAH 

The letter on which the symbol appears is read by doubling it. (e.g R would become RR) So the first letter (R) is read as if there would be a sukoon (stop) on it and the second (R) with a harakat (vowel)
E.g

‘Tabba’تَبّ  should be read as ‘tab-ba’ 
not as ‘tab’

Caution – when there are a couple or a few tashdeeds together in one, two or three words, then utmost care should be taken to ensure that all the tashdeeds are recited correctly. It is a common mistake to be neglectful of these collective tashdeeds

Example

Extract from Verse
ٱلنَّبِىَّ ٱلْأُمِّىَّ ٱلَّذِى
شَرِّ ٱلنَّفَّـٰثَـٰتِ

Click ‘here‘ to view practice exercises for a few Shaddahtogether

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