Quran School

Rules of the Definite Article

oبِسۡمِ ٱلرَّحۡمَٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ
Of the 28 letters of the Arabic alphabet,
14 of the letters are known as solar (sun) letters. These are:
ت ‌ث ‌ د ‌ذ‌ ر ‌ز ‌ س ‌ش ‌ص ‌ض ‌ ط‌ ظ ‌ ل‌ ن‌
14 of the letters are known as lunar (moon) letters. These are:
ء ‌ب ‌ج ‌ ح ‌خ ‌ع ‌غ ‌ ف ‌ق ‌ك‌ م ‌ه‌ و ‌ ي
the Arabic letters ال means ‘The‘ in English

Example:

ﺑﺎبdoor
ال the
ال+ﺑﺎب=اﻟﺒﺎب
The+Door=The Door

The 1st letter of the word that follows ال would determine the pronunciation depending on whether it is a sun or moon letter

SOLAR (SUN) LETTERS (shamsiyyah) ﺷﻤﺴﻴﻪ

EXAMPLE 1:

Requirements :

  • Presence of ال
  • followed by a sun letter
Effect:
  • the letter alif of the ال is assimilated with the sun letter
  • the letter laam of the ال is ignored
  • the sun letter carries a shaddah 
ﺷَﻤﺲsun
ال the
ال+ﺷَﻤﺲ=اَﻟﺸَّﻤﺲ
The + sun = The sun

This is pronounced as ‘ash-shams’ and not ‘al-shams’

If you want to join the preceding word onto the ال word, then you ignore the ال completely.

EXAMPLE 2
Requirements :
Presence ofال
followed by a sun letter
and preceded by another word

Effect :

the last letter of this word joins straight onto the sun letter
so the ال is ignored completely.

مَـٰلِكِ يَوْمِ ٱلدِّينِ

The letter م joins straight onto the sun letter and the ٱل is ignored completely
This is pronounced ‘yaw-mid-deen

Examples of Solar Letters
Sun Letter
ت
Definite article attached to word
ٱلتِّينِ
Definite article preceded by letter / word
وَٱلتِّينِ
Surah : Verse  (95:1)
Sun Letter
ث
Definite article attached to word
ٱلثَّوَابِ
Definite article preceded by letter / word
حُسْنُ ٱلثَّوَابِ
Surah : Verse (3:195)
Sun Letter
د
Definite article attached to word
ٱلدِّينِ
Definite article preceded by letter / word
يَوْمِ ٱلدِّينِ
Surah : Verse (1:3)
Sun Letter
ذ
Definite article attached to word
الذّٰرِيٰتِ
Definite article preceded by letter / word
وَالذّٰرِيٰتِ
Surah : Verse (51:1)
Sun Letter
ر
Definite article attached to word
ٱلرَّسُولُ
Definite article preceded by letter / word
وَيَكُونَ ٱلرَّسُولُ
Surah : Verse (2:143)
Sun Letter
ز
Definite article attached to word
ٱلزَّكَوٰةَ
Definite article preceded by letter / word
وَءَاتَوُا۟ ٱلزَّكَوٰةَ
Surah : Verse (2:277)
Sun Letter
س
Definite article attached to word
ٱلسَّمَآءِ
Definite article preceded by letter / word
مِنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ
Surah : Verse (2:22)
Sun Letter
ش
Definite article attached to word
ٱلشَّيْطَـٰنُ
Definite article preceded by letter / word
وَكَانَ ٱلشَّيْطَـٰنُ
Surah : Verse (25:29)
Sun Letter
ص
Definite article attached to word
ٱلصَّمَدُ
Definite article preceded by letter / word
ٱللَّهُ ٱلصَّمَدُ
Surah : Verse (112:2)
Sun Letter
ض
Definite article attached to word
ٱلضُّعَفَآءِ
Definite article preceded by letter / word
عَلَى ٱلضُّعَفَآءِ
Surah : Verse (9:91)
Sun Letter
ط
Definite article attached to word
 ٱلطَّيْرِ
Definite article preceded by letter / word
مِّنَ ٱلطَّيْرِ
Surah : Verse (2:260)
Sun Letter
ظ
Definite article attached to word
  الظَّالِمِ 
Definite article preceded by letter / word
 هَٰذِهِ الْقَرْيَةِ الظَّالِمِ 
Surah : Verse (4:75)
Sun Letter
ل
Definite article attached to word
الَّيۡلِ
Definite article preceded by letter / word
بِالَّيۡلِ
Surah : Verse (2:274)
Sun Letter
ن
Definite article attached to word
ٱلنَّفْسِ
Definite article preceded by letter / word
بِٱلنَّفْسِ
Surah : Verse (75:2)

Lunar (MOON) Letters (Qamariyyah)ﻗﻤﺮﻳﻪ

EXAMPLE 1

Requirements :

  • Presence of ال
  • followed by a moon letter

Effect :

  • the ال is pronounced
Sun Letter
ا
Definite article attached to word
ٱلْأَحَادِيثِ
Definite article preceded by letter / word
تَأْوِيلِ ٱلْأَحَادِيثِ
Surah : Verse (12 : 6)
Sun Letter
ب
Definite article attached to word
ٱلْبَيْتِ
Definite article preceded by letter / word
مِنَ ٱلْبَيْتِ
Surah : Verse (12 : 127)
Sun Letter
ج
Definite article attached to word
ٱلْجَمَلُ
Definite article preceded by letter / word
يَلِجَ ٱلْجَمَلُ
Surah : Verse ( 7 : 40)
Sun Letter
ح
Definite article attached to word
الْحَاۤقَّةُ 
Definite article preceded by letter / word
مَا الْحَاۤقَّةُ
Surah : Verse (69:2)
Sun Letter
خ
Definite article attached to word
ٱلْخَـٰلِقُونَ
Definite article preceded by letter / word
أَمْ هُمُ ٱلْخَـٰلِقُونَ
Surah : Verse (52:35)
Sun Letter
ع
Definite article attached to word
ٱلْعَذَابَ
Definite article preceded by letter / word
يَرَوُا۟ ٱلْعَذَابَ
Surah : Verse (10:88)
Sun Letter
غ
Definite article attached to word
ٱلْغَرَقُ
Definite article preceded by letter / word
أَدْرَكَهُ ٱلْغَرَقُ
Surah : Verse (10:90)
Sun Letter
ف
Definite article attached to word
ٱلْفِتْنَةُ
Definite article preceded by letter / word
وَٱلْفِتْنَةُ
Surah : Verse (2:191)
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