Quran School

Madd caused / followed by a sukoon or shaddah

maad followed by sukoon
بِسۡمِ ٱلرَّحۡمَٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ
MADD ‘AARID LI SUKOON

This occurs when there is a sukoon 

placed on a letter by the reader due to stopping in the recitation (whether in the middle or end of an ayah)

Requirement :

  • Natural madd letter
  • Followed by a sukoon (as the reader has chosen to stop on it)

Although this will not be actually visible in the Qur’an, but is implied as the reader has chosen to stop on it.

Effect :

  • Elongate 2, 4 or 6 counts
  • Preferred 4 or 6

Examples :

89:11
95:6

Click ‘here‘ to view practice exercises for the rules of Madd ‘Aarid Li
Sukoon

Madd Leen

This occurs when a word contains a dipthong, and the reader chooses to stop on it (whether in the middle or end of an ayah), therefore placing a sukoon on the last letter

Requirement :

  • Madd letter   
  • Followed by a sukoon (and the reader has chosen to stop on it)

Although this will not be actually visible in the Qur’an, but is implied as the reader has chosen to stop on it.

Effect :

  • Elongate 2, 4 or 6 counts
  • Preferred is 4

Examples :

106:1 
106:4
Madd Laazim

Requirement :

  • Natural madd letter
  • Followed by sukoon or shaddah 

Effect :

  • Shaddah is included as it represents a doubled letter: the 1st letter is saakin; and the 2nd is mutaharrik
  • Elongate 6 counts
  • Laazim means ‘obligatory’, so it must be elongated for 6 counts

Madd Laazim is of two types  : Kalimee (word) and Harfee (letter)

Madd Laazim Kalimee

The obligatory (laazim) madd that is present in a word (kalimee)

Requirement :

  • Natural madd letter
  • Followed by sukoon or shaddah 
  • In a word

Heavy : When a SHADDAH () follows the madd letter in a word

Examples :

1:7
80:33

Light : when a SUKOON () follows the madd letter in a word

Example

10:51 

Click ‘here‘ to view practice exercises for the rules of Madd Laazim
Kalimee

Madd Laazim Harfee

The obligatory (laazim) madd that is present in a letter (harfee)

  • This occurs in some of the letters that are present at the beginning of certain surahs
  • These surahs begin with some independent letters from the Arabic alphabet, which are attached to each other like ordinary words. The individual letters have to be pronounced by reading out their respective names.

E.g.

  • The length of each letters’ prolongation will be determined by the Madd rule inherent within the spelling of it
  • The difference of the length of its prolongation is determined by the number of letters that are used to spell the name of that particular letter
  • So these madd can contain either three, two or one letter

The three lettered Madd laazim harfee

Requirement :

  • These letters are the ones that are spelt with 3 letters and their middle letters are either madd or leen letters

Effect :

  • Elongate 6 counts
  • These letters are:
نٓ
قٓ
سٓ
صٓ
لٓ
مٓ
 عٓ

Further Notes :

  • The letter that has a dipthong (leen) is the spelling of the word  (
    • This occurs in the 2 surahs
      • Surah Maryam (19)
      • Surah Ash-shura (42) 
    • According to the Shaatibiyyah way it is lengthened 4 or 6 counts
    • Imam Shatabi said ‘the   has 2 possible pronunciations and the longer is preferred’ – 6 counts 
    • However, according to the way of Tayyaba, it would be only 2 counts

Heavy : when there is a letter of Idghaam after one of the 3 lettered words

EXAMPLE 1

(Surah 2)

In this example, we can see :

  • The letter laam () is a 3 lettered word
  • The spelling of it is   
  • The last letter is a meem which carries a sukoon  on the last letter
  • The following 3 lettered word is the letter meem spelt   
  • So we now have followed by (with a vowel), hence the need to do idghaam (2 counts ghunnah)

EXAMPLE 2

(Surah 26)

In this example, we can see :

  • The letter seen is a 3 lettered word
  • The spelling of it is 
  • The last letter is a nuun which carries a sukoon 
  • The following 3 lettered word is the letter meem spelt  
  • So we now have a followed by (with a vowel), hence the need to idghaam (2 counts ghunnah)

Light : when there is NO letter of idghaam after one of the 3 lettered words, but the letter is still elongated for 6 counts

(Surah 19)
The letter following the ن is a ص which is a letter of Ikhfaa, not Idghaam-Therefore, the light harfee would apply

The two lettered Madd laazim harfee

  • The letters that are spelt with 2 letters (occur in the opening verses of some surahs) produce the natural prolongation of 2 counts
  • These letters are:
LetterSpellingSurah No.
20
19
10
40
19

One lettered Madd Laazim Harfee

  • One letter that doesn’t take a madd at all is the alif, and this is due to there being no madd letters in the spelling of it
(Surah 2)
Click on the ‘Summary Chart for Madd‘ link on the right hand sidebar to view a
summarised chart for the types and branches of Madd
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