Quran School

Madd caused

Maad

Madd caused / followed by other things

Madd Sila

This occurs when the possessive pronoun  (shown as  when attached to the previous letter), which denotes the 3rd person singular masculine, falls between 2 letters that carry a vowel.

Two types: Major (ﮐﺒﺮى) and Minor (ﺻﻐﺮى)

MAJOR

Requirements :

  • The possessive pronoun  
  • Followed by hamzah () mutaharrik

Effect :

  • Elongate 2, 4 or 5 counts
  • Preferred 4 or 5

Further Notes :

  • Preferred elongation is 4 or 5 to illustrate that it is not the natural madd of just 2 counts
  • Those who have no or little knowledge of the Arabic language may not understand the usage of the possessive pronoun  which basically refers to the third person singular masculine. A tiny / will be present to indicate this rule

The presence of a squiggly line indicates that it is preferred that the reader elongates it for more than 2 counts

  • If the  carries a dammah (),  will be present
  • If the  carries a kasra (),  will be present

Examples :

(90:7)
(104:3) 
(83:12) 
(12:54)

MINOR

Requirements :

  • The possessive pronoun 
  • Followed by any letter other than hamzah ()

Effect :

  • Elongate 2 counts only

Further Notes :

  • A tiny / will be present , but this time there will be no squiggly line as its elongation is for only 2 counts, which is the same as the natural madd

Examples

(92:18) 
(92:19) 
(100:4) 
(100:5)
EXCEPTIONS TO THE RULE OF MADD SILA

There are 4 instances in the Qur’an where the rules of MADD SILA will not apply.

  1. Surah Al Furqan (25:69)Hafs lengthens it even though the letter preceding the ‘ha’ is saakin, and not mutaharrik  
  2. Surah Zumar (39:7)﴾﴿The ‘ha’ is not elongated, even though it is between 2 letters that are mutaharrik  
  3. Surah Naml (27:28)﴾ ﴿Hafs reads it with a sukoon () on the ‘ha’. As it carries a  , it would probably be read this way anyway 
  4. Surah Ash-Shura (26:36)﴾﴿Hafs reads it with a sukoon () on the ‘ha’. As it carries a , it would probably be read this way anyway
Madd Badal

This Madd follows the same principal as a normal madd; the difference being that the madd letter is a substitute for what was originally a hamzah.

Requirements :

  • It occurs when the letter preceding it is also hamzah

Effect :

  • Elongate 2 counts

Further Notes :

The original form of these words was  but a long vowel replaced the second hamzah for ease in pronunciation.

Examples:

إِإْﻣﺎن
(3:193)
أَأْدم
(2:31)
Madd ‘Ewad
An alif which carries 2 fathahs ,is called fathahtain, and is written as اً
 Requirements :
This madd occurs when the reader stops on the fathahtain ( )(For further information on stopping at tanween, refer to ‘Rules of Waqf’)
Effect :I
nstead of pronouncing nunnation, the reader stops as though there is a natural madd with a So it is like taking one of the off and being left with 1 fathah and an alif i.e. Natural maddElongate 2 counts
Further Notes :
This applies whether stopping in the middle or end of an ayah However, if the letter is a ta marbutta () , then the rule of madd ‘ewad will not apply. Instead, it is pronounced like  carrying a , in which case the sifa of hems (continuation of breath) will be applied
E.g
 ﺟَﻨَّﺔً pronounced as ﺟَﻨَّﻪْ
Madd Al-Farq
  • This occurs in only 3 words in the Qur’an, each word appearing in 2 different places as the table below shows
  • Elongate 6 counts
(Surah:Verse) Extract from Verse
(10:59)
(27:59)
(6:143)
(6:144)
(10:51)
(10:90)
Madd Tamkeen

Requirements :

  • When there is a  carrying a  and 
  • Followed by ‘Yaa’ of elongation

Effect :

  • This will tighten the kasra () on the 
  • Elongate 2 counts

Examples

(Surah:Verse)Extract from Verse
(4:86) 
(2:61) 

í the 

 replaces the 2nd Yaa

Click ‘here‘to view practice exercises for the rules of Madd Tamkeen
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