Madd Followed Others

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Madd caused / followed by other things

 

Madd Sila Madd Badal Madd Ewad Madd Al-Farq Madd Tamkeen

 

Madd Sila

This occurs when the possessive pronoun (shown as when attached to the previous letter), which denotes the 3rd person singular masculine, falls between 2 letters that carry a vowel.

Two types: Major (ﮐﺒﺮى) and Minor (ﺻﻐﺮى)

MAJOR

Requirements :

  • The possessive pronoun
  • Followed by hamzah () mutaharrik

Effect :

  • Elongate 2, 4 or 5 counts
  • Preferred 4 or 5

Further Notes :

  • Preferred elongation is 4 or 5 to illustrate that it is not the natural madd of just 2 counts
  • Those who have no or little knowledge of the Arabic language may not understand the usage of the possessive pronoun which basically refers to the third person singular masculine. A tiny / will be present to indicate this rule

The presence of a squiggly line indicates that it is preferred that the reader elongates it for more than 2 counts

  • If the carries a dammah (), will be present

 

  • If the carries a kasra (), will be present

Examples

   Extract from Verse (Surah:

Verse)

     (104:3)

     (90:7)

     (12:54)

     (12:54)

 

 

 

 

MINOR

Requirements :

  • The possessive pronoun
  • Followed by any letter other than hamzah ()

Effect :

  • Elongate 2 counts only

Further Notes :

  • A tiny / will be present , but this time there will be no squiggly line as its elongation is for only 2 counts, which is the same as the natural madd

Examples

  (Surah:

Verse)

Extract from Verse
     (92:18)

     (92:19)

    (100:4)

     (100:5)

 

EXCEPTIONS TO THE RULE OF MADD SILA

There are 4 instances in the Qur’an where the rules of MADD SILA will not apply.

  1. Surah Al Furqan
    (25:69)

Hafs lengthens it even though the letter preceding the ‘ha’ is saakin, and not mutaharrik

 

 

  • Surah Zumar (39:7)

    ﴿

    The ‘ha’ is not elongated, even though it is between 2 letters that are mutaharrik

     

     

  • Surah Naml (27:28)


    ﴿

    Hafs reads it with a sukoon () on the ‘ha’. As it carries a , it would probably be read this way anyway

     

  • Surah Ash-Shura
    (26:36)

 

﴿

Hafs reads it with a sukoon () on the ‘ha’. As it carries a , it would probably be read this way anyway

Madd Badal

This Madd follows the same principal as a normal madd; the difference being that the madd letter is a substitute for what was originally a hamzah.

Requirements :

  • It occurs when the letter preceding it is also hamzah

Effect :

  • Elongate 2 counts

Further Notes :

The original form of these words was  but a long vowel replaced the second hamzah for ease in pronunciation.

Examples

إِإْﻣﺎن
(3:193)
أَأْدم (2:31)

Madd ‘Ewad

An alif which carries 2 fathahs ,is called fathahtain, and is written as
اً

Requirements :

  • This madd occurs when the reader stops on the fathahtain ()

(For further information on stopping at tanween, refer to ‘Rules of Waqf’)

Effect :

  • Instead of pronouncing nunnation, the reader stops as though there is a natural madd with a
  • So it is like taking one of the off and being left with 1 fathah and an alif i.e. Natural madd
  • Elongate 2 counts

Further Notes :

  • This applies whether stopping in the middle or end of an ayah
  • However, if the letter is a ta marbutta () , then the rule of madd ‘ewad will not apply. Instead, it is pronounced like carrying a , in which case the sifa of hems (continuation of breath) will be applied

E.g

ﺟَﻨَّﺔً

pronounced as

ﺟَﻨَّﻪْ

 

Examples

 

(Surah:

Verse)

Extract from Verse
 

(100:1)

   

(100:2)

 

 

 

Click ‘here‘ to view practice exercises for the rules of Madd Ewad

Madd Al-Farq

  • This occurs in only 3 words in the Qur’an, each word appearing in 2 different places as the table below shows
  • Elongate 6 counts

 

(Surah:Verse)   Extract from Verse
(10:59)

(27:59)

 

 (6:143)

(6:144)

 

 
 (10:51)

(10:90)

 

 

 

 

 

NB It is actually a madd laazim kalimee, yet it is called farq as it differentiates between the word and the question indicator

Madd Tamkeen

Requirements :

  • When there is a carrying a and
  • Followed by ‘Yaa’ of elongation

Effect :

  • This will tighten the kasra () on the
  • Elongate 2 counts

Examples

(Surah:Verse)

Extract from Verse

(4:86)

(2:61)

the
replaces the 2nd Yaa

Click ‘here‘to view practice exercises for the rules of Madd Tamkeen

Click on the ‘Summary
Chart for Madd
‘ link on the right hand sidebar to view a summarised

chart for the types and branches of Madd

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